The town of Rota is a Spanish municipality located in the Province of Cádiz, Andalusia. Situated on one side of the Bay of Cádiz in the Atlantic Ocean, it is halfway between Portugal and Gibraltar and is predominantly a tourist town, a holiday destination for travelers from all over Europe..
In the year 2009 it had 28,516 inhabitants. Its surface area is 84 km² and with a density of 339.44 inhabitants / km². Coordinates: 36°37′N 6°21′W. It is located near the city of Jerez de la Frontera and 36 kilometers away from the provincial capital, Cadiz. It belongs to two associations, the Association of Municipalities of the Bay of Cadiz yalong with the municipalities of Cadiz, Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa María, San Fernando, Chiclana and Puerto Real; and the Association of Municipalities of the Lower Guadalquivir that comprises municipalities of Northwest Coast of Andalusia. In the area there is also Naval Station, which is the largest source of employment in the town.
Archaeological evidence suggests that there was a Bronze Age settlement on the present site of Rota. The current town was founded by the Phoenicians at approximately the same time as Cádiz. Rota is assumed to be the same city known as Astaroth of the Tartesian empire. It later passed to the Romans, who knew the town as Speculum Rotae.
Following the arrival of the Moors in Spain, the city became known as Rabita Rutta ("watchtower of Rota"), from which it derives its present name. From 1248 onwards, the Moors were gradually expelled from Spain, and the city became Christian..
In 1297, Sancho IV awarded the town to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán in honour of his defence of Tarifa. Later, Pérez de Guzmán gave it to his daughter, Isabel, as a wedding present when she married Fermin Ponce de León, Maestre of Alcántara and First Lord of Marchena. Construction of the Castillo de la Luna (Castle of the Moon) had begun in 1295, two years prior to the bequest to Pérez de Guzmán, as part of Sancho IV's effort to develop strong coastal defenses, especially near the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. During the Middle Ages, the town was an important port for trading with North Africa. In 1780 the 11th Duke of Arcos died without issue, and the city was rendered to the Duke of Osuna.
Nowadays Rota is a cosmopolitan and modern town that is proud of its traditions and welcome people from all over the world with a smile and to the sound of the waves breaking.